Renault has revealed its new ‘Energy F1-2014’ engine which has been designed to meet the new technical regulations that are to be used in F1 racing from next season onwards.
In 2014 the FIA Formula One World Championship is set to enter a new era. After three years of planning and development, the most significant technical change to hit the sport in more than two decades is about to be introduced. Engine regulations form the major part of the coming revolution, with the introduction of a new generation of power units that combine a 1.6-litre V6 turbocharged engine with energy recovery systems that will increase efficiency by harvesting energy dissipated as heat in the exhaust or brakes.
The maximum power of the new power unit will exceed the output of current V8 F1 engines, however, fuel efficiency will be improved. With only 100kg permitted for the race, the new units will use 35% less fuel than their predecessors.
“From next year, one of greatest challenges in F1 will be to maximise energy efficiency and fuel economy while maintaining the power output and performance expected of F1 cars. Renault has pioneered this technology in its road car engine range with the Energy series. Naming the Power Unit Energy F1 creates an unbroken range, from the Clio through to our competition department,” said Jean-Michel Jalinier, current President of Renault Sport F1.
Rob White, Deputy Managing Director (technical), explained why a new terminology has been adopted to describe the latest engine design: “The next generation of F1 cars will be powered by a turbocharged 1.6-litre V6 internal combustion engine of around 600 bhp, plus around 160 bhp of electrical propulsion from the energy recovery system, meaning the term ‘engine’ will no longer fully describe a car’s source of propulsive power. It is more relevant to refer to the complete system as a ‘Power Unit’.”
2014: What are the rules?
- 1.6L direct injection Turbo V6.
- Unique pressure charging architecture: single turbine and compressor (plus E-motor allowed).
- 5 Power Units per driver per season in 2014, reducing to 4 in subsequent years.
- Strong focus on improved vehicle fuel efficiency / reduced fuel consumption :
- Fuel quantity for the race limited to 100 kg initially (-35% from now – currently unlimited).
- Fuel mass flow rate limited to 100 kg/hr max – currently unlimited.
- Potent Energy Recovery Systems (ERS) are allowed.
Old and new engine comparison:
|Pressure charging||Normally aspirated, pressure charging is forbidden||Single turbocharger, unlimited boost pressure (typical maximum 3.5 bar abs due to fuel flow limit)|
|Fuel flow limit||Unlimited, but typically 170 kg/h||100 kg/h (-40%)|
|Permitted Fuel quantity per race||Unlimited, but typically 160 kg||100 kg (-35%)|
|Configuration||90° V8||90° V6|
|Number of cylinders||8||6|
|Crank height||Min 58mm||90mm|
|Number of valves||4 per cylinder, 32||4 per cylinder, 24|
|Exhausts||Twin exhaust outlets, one per bank of cylinders||Single exhaust outlet, from turbine on car centre line|
|Fuel||Indirect fuel injection||Direct fuel injection|
|Number of Power Units permitted per driver per year||8||5|
|Energy recovery systems|
|MGU-K rpm||Unlimited (38,000 rpm)||Max 50,000 rpm|
|MGU-K power||Max 60kW||Max 120kW|
|Energy recovered by MGU-K||Max 0.4 MJ/lap||Max 2MJ/lap|
|Energy released by MGU-K||Max 0.4 MJ/lap||Max 4 MJ/lap|
|Energy recovered by MGU-H||–||Unlimited (> 2MJ/lap)|